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Full text of "Annotated list of the less common phaenogamous herbs and shrubs of Pulaski County, Arkansas, with a key to their identification"

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;/. ous 






- - 

., Eaq 

ieulture and Appli< cnce, 11 

., Bakes . ' „y, 1< 
., Color do ,tate '_ 



fulfillment of 



s f or the degree of 









■ 







ft\e> 

26a 
rsi 

C.Z 



■ ■ 



I County 

■ Orders 
mas I. mocdti lecloneae 

Claaa 2. Mi-oty.. 

ociea StudJU 

nowledgments 
erenceo 



1 
8 



I 

it 

48 
50 
51 



nran 






I OH 



tiW^fli Arkansas with Its tocspcrate elinete, its 
abuodant rainfall and Its diversified soil types, abounds 
in plant life of t wide end varied description, little 
CBS been done in caking the inforcar tlon concerning its 
flora available to its people. Msflfcl county, whieh lies 
approximately in the center of the st* to, possesses 

-rapnic und soil cJ eristics Which ars quite 
typical of those of the stcte as a whole, s s result of 
this varied physiocraphy, the flora of Pulaski county is 

-epreeer.t.- tive of fcfa« st ts. ! srt hfltt been no 
listing of tr lous plant species, nor has the flora of 
■:■ \ c : ' -';■• ' "•". ' SOI 11 -■'. f ' " - icntl, ■, it 
thought that a taaacsuaode study of the flora In the 
county surrounding the city of Little ::och, would not 
only provide Infomaation of local interest but it adght 
t-lso bo used to advantage in other ports of the state as 
well. 



ISie following; study is divided into throe 
BSEjely, a description of the physical fee tares of the 



county? a survey of the flora of the county, In which the 
various species are listed in their respective orders and 

illlesj a key to the identification of the various 
species. 



Z COUNTY 

ilaski County lies in tv/o mv jor physiographic 
divisions of the southern United States* and is npproxi- 
•etely in the center of the state of Ark^nscs. .lie 
county is more or less triancoilcrr shaped and is divided 
diagonally from the northwest to the southeast by the 
rkansos River, xhose sections of the state •vhich lie 
south, southwest and east oi the Arkansas River lie in 
the lovvlrnd area of Uie Uulf Goact-a i'lain; those parts 
nortii sal west of the river lie in the mountainous area 
or "astern Plain. 

The county comprises an area of 779 square miles or 
49C cres. It is made up of three principal 
topographic divislc the alluvial lowlands along the 
.rkansas Kiver and the southeastern par*t of the '» 
the undulatfcig uplrnds lyinr moinly to the eastj and the 
rest of the county consisting of isolated hills and long 



narrow rlcL-^es with rolling uplands between, 

as arc . .., . |§ aany ox-bow lakes, 
•waiap*, sloughs, bayous . amorous ridges. The elevation 
of this south-sloping pi from IOC to 300 feet 

:ve sea level. 

'ids range soaie 100 feet above the lowl nds in 
elev tion. The -ling portions of the county may be 
describe vita intervening rolling or level 

areas of froa- less than a uile to about five miles in 
width, lying north and •est of the - rkansas 

iver is in the Ouachita ..ountain region. 

3 range in elevation of the entire county is about 
&10 fee.. | lo.ost point, £2o feet above sen level, ic 

?diere it leaves the southern 
bound- ry of the county, and the highest point, 

- -ion of 1050 feet. 
There Is r considerable area of gently sloping land in 
the vai: t£ on the tops of scaie of tlie broader ridges* 

series of cone shaped mountains or pinnacles, the 
SMBnelle Pinnacles, c. ■ in an east and west direction. 
11 of the streaaa of Pulaski County drain toward the 
Iver, flowing in an eastward direction to t. 
river from th© aoontains. ' hile the county is fairly well 



lined, poor db [ occurs in some of the larger creek 
bottoas and low ar«i*j ■ flat coastal p_ 
and on second botteaas and lo\. 3 in the river bottoms. 
• allsata is . no bub mmajx tempers ture has 
been below 40 :•". ihe Bean t fceaperature has been 
., sad the absolute over the pa at 45 years 
for which record* are avail- Is froia -12°p. to It. . 

_c average date of the last killing frost in the 
Spring is :<!arch 18, and of tiic first in the fail is 
lovauber 15, asking ■ -zing season of 240 d-ys. 

iliing frost on record occurred on 
April B6g and the earliest fill frost on October 12. 
The M precipil Lion of 49.98 inches is 
v.cli di L a ted throughout rowing season* 
c precipitation in the driest year on record, *,was 
inches and in the wettest { 1832 ), was 75.54 inches, 
e Mlnswil constituent of the soil of . 1 s 
ived froia esrtlwsi rocks which occurred 
originally in the for^is of sandstone, shales, chalks, 
limestones Mid doluites. Ihe e are about 14 square miles 
of intrusive volcanic rocks scattered in small p 
throughout tlie county. 'Ihe blue and grey "granites" of 
?ul: sii County make up the principal body of thess 




volcanic wxfcs. 

tton soils are characterised by- 
air distinct purple olor and their hl#i percent- 
age of culciiiiw carbonate. e soils of the county ar© in 
general characteristic or tliose oped wider e humid 
cliaate in the warm temperate cones* 

The total forest land comprises 60£ of the comity or 
54£>,990 acres; tmtm foreat lurid, 72*336 acres; farm lend* 
200, kSO acres; farm fore ores; and 

not pastured* 4 3*77 C acres. o past century the 
forest area of ;rfcan»ae 1ms been reduced by lead clearing 
from 32 million to 22 aillion acres. Sons 2C on 
seres of the present -and ares have been cut over, 
mostly in the last 30 to 4L a, so scarcely two 

trillion uc irgin or old»grewth ti 



OEIERAL KEY TO xTIE 
Class 1. Monocotyledoneas 

Seeds with one cotyledon; stems wl hout distinction 
into pith, wood and bark; parts of the flower usually in 
3«s or 6»s; leaves mostly parallel-veined. 

1. Ovary superior. 

2. Flowers borne in the axils of chaffy scales* (i.e., 
perianth glutaaceous ) and arranged in spikelets. 

1. PGAL .. 
Perianth conspicuous, not gluiaaceous. 2. II e n 
1. Ovary inferior. 

2. Flowers regular. . 15 

2. Flowers irregular. 4. ORCIIIDALKS. 16 

POALES (Oraminales) 

A« Leaves 3-ranked, with closed shssths; steas usually 
solid; fruit an achene. 1. Cyperaceae. 

A. Leaves 2-ranked, with open sheaths; stems usually 
hollow; fruit a caryopsis. 2. Poaceae. 



1. CTPSRACEAE (Sedges) 
Cyperus 

. Lcales falling away from the persistent rachis of the 
flattened spikelets. 
B. /Zings of trio r^chia distinct. 
C. Scales tightily appressed. 
C. 'i'lps of the scales free, 
ings of the rachis none or narrow. 
. Spikelets falling away from the axis of "the spikes , tHe 
lower pair of scales connonly persistent. 



C. rotundus. 
C, Kallil." - 
ST^pse^ovegetus 




oblong or obovold, about twice v.b long as 



C# aehls wingless or narrowly winged. 

• flUcuJU la. 
C. asehie-wings membranous, broad. iIoTOosusT 

. . cone BMV«vlf linear- oblong, 9*4 fcIS a as long 
en thick, C« strlgosua. 



"""s sag* wssx* 6 - 

Cyperus liallil Britten. Hall's 
In looist fields* *«g»-Oct. 

In marsnes. ouly-^ept. 

Cyperus fnionlmls vahl. Thro d-atemmed or 

"In ^arane*. June-Aog. 

C yperns filobalosua Aubl. spherical or Baldwin* e Cyperus, 
St ery son. July-* ug. 

Cyperus strlgosus I. straw-coloi'ed Cyperus, 

in ad si meadows, swamps or along atre as* Aug.-Oct. 



roe nan it (< 

True Qrasses 

oy to the tribes 



*• Spike leta or cluoters of apil cleta in two rows in 
spikes } sessile • 
B.. Flowering eeale* not hr.rdenedi empty sesles keeled* 

1* Clilo: idetie. 
B« Flowering sesles hardened; epikelets flattened 
dorsally; empty seales not keeled. 

2. Fanieeae. 

• pikelets not in two rowsi podiceled in panicles, 

spike-like panicles or 



*. Splklets £-many flowered; lowest flower always 
perfect. 3. Festueeae. 

B. Spikleta 1-2-flowered, when 2-flowered the lower 
staalncte or rudimentary. 
C. Splkelets , nil v;ith a perfect flower. 

4. Agrostideae. 
C. Splkelets of two kinds, some perfect and sessile, 
accompanied by 1-L-pediceled, stminate o 
rudimentary spikelets. ^. . jidropogoner.e. 



Tribe 1. 



:/.j. 



. Splkelets with several flowers. 
A. Spikelets with one perfect flower, 

Eleusine 



i.lenaine. 
Martina. 



i.L eusinfe indica (L. ) Gaertn. India Wire-grass. Crab-grass, 
In fields T June-Sept. 

Spartina 

Sportlna cynosuroldes (L. ) illd. Slough-grass. 
In wet places." . ug.-Oct. 



Tribe 2. PAHIC 



; ntherisma 

A* Pedicels terete, glabrous; 1st scale wanting. 

S. IschasBgucu 
. Pedicels sharply 5-angled; angles hispidulous; 1st 

scale minute. S. s nguina le. 



Syntherismr. Isch; emum (Schreb.) Hash. Snail Crab-grass, 
In cuitiv- feci "fields and waste plr.ces. July-Sept. 

Syntherisma sangu lnale ( L.) Dulac. Large Crab-grass. 
In cultivated rieids or waste places. July-; ug. 



Stignos barbells te; epikelets In clusters of 5 or 6 In 
axils of splneseent Ic-ves. flfc atre? . 
a. Ctigoas pluoosej upiirelets not In the axils of let ves; 
inflorescence v« rious. 
D* Flowering scales 1 

, Lateral nerves of the flower Ing seales pilose. 
D. Intornodee of rnehilla long, Tri ple sis . 
D. Interaodes of rachllla short. ' ldens. 
C. Lateral nerves of the fleeerlng seales glabrous. 

2 . , S2ffi22Mf- 

. . IflVNPtag scales o-ur.ny nerved. 
C. ;*ipty seales snorter thtn uppermost. ?o&. 
, Uppenaost scales of tew smaller eat eoptyT^ Unlola. 



IO" 



unroc Bquarros* (iiutt. j 

fieiitt on dry pi. AH6»~ect. 

ipl^sls 

{Holt.) Chop*, purple or 



>. us. -.sept. 

-:idc s 

mmmmmmmmmmmmm 

Tridens flava <L. ) ritche. Tall Red-top. 
In fields. July- ^ept. 

o 

k* Amxmlat spikelets B e s my flowers. 

B» Flowering stales thin; spikclets 1 as. *ide< 



pilose, 



B # Flowering seales final eplkelots over 1 an. vide. 

M» asjor. 
A* Perennials! splkelets not clustered. ".. peetinaee -a« 



Eraxrostis 






10 



itls as Jo* Host. -scented Love-grass. 

waste pi- c< . ug.* ept. 




■f hi ii II 1 1 + *i jr^TljKTfr^r (Wei . ) steud. Purple Love-grass. 
jn dry soil. 

A* Sheaths loncor than Into MM flowering scales webbed. 

P. prstensla . 
• Gheoths shorter than inter uos; flowering •eSTes not 
webbed . F •ftutuar- 



ra 



• 2eaAow o 

s, fields and 



rwilrey Blue— gr*ts c • 






June-- 



foe utuun-lle :&ttU Plexus 
In woodn. '.^ch-SEsy. 



)■■:•- ■:•.'•"- a . 



Uj aiol 

3r< 
pi cos. .ug.-&ept< 



1- tjf Oil;: ichX. 
■Kr""pT~"t 



Sribe 4. &G. 



.„ lo not h rt the b»so. 

ng scales with a ponaanent awn. rlstid-r * 

HjfftlW asaerif oHias (lees ft Mcyen. } ifcu ' or, 
ved I ropseed. In dry soil. /ue«- \ . 

..ric-.lil. 



ii. Centrrl awn not over 3 

D. Latere! nwns auch shorter ttostt the eenti^l one. 

>toa»» 
■s Lateral awns ne rly as long eg the eentt xie~ 



. . Oentr- 1 awn 3-4 en. lone: or 



ii* 
- • 




* scons. 
Ehtha" ."" 



Aristid dichotoa- !.:ichx. Poverty-c«»»3» 
In dry s-.ndy soil. ,-aept. 




a . jjrc 






■ 



" . 









, 









1: 









■ 









- 



1 L « 



' 






: 



12 



. e vcs not v: '.or led; ovules two in e- ch cell. 

. Ootnaelixu cc c. 
A« Fruit g bcr 

. c-.vcs b&sal or altera te. Uarl 

ticlllate. 5. ril e. 



( 

ospcr ..- iiusc - etoslc -jLu ( alt.) ze. ■• oison. 

In dry 8 oods. 



•s In umbels* 
dor c litlcally onion-Ii c. .11 in 

. Odor not onlon-llke. HoacordJ 

• Flo era 1 . r • . 

. ■ - 

h blue. 

- 

3D086. "' 



11:" 

'• ° t1 G. 

. a 

-■- - ts is. r. ~iui 



allium stel 



ild Onion. 



On ro< 

Alllu ic 

in il. 

buoscordl 

ooiTT 






si 



In ■ 



-itton. i] 
3 3 - 




■ 



thleh 
In f.' ' s. June, 

usct-rl 

i bot:yoid< ,) ill. /acini ■ 

In am dov/s 

CC [f) 

feet; at -. . r -f 

. Peto Is c: 1; ct; stamens 

COi-^-eli . 

Co.— . cli:;: ._;.: .'-ii-'Io- : : . treepj ••.- 

"Ton"; stre 51 nd in v a a. July-Get. 



. . . c vc: , cs longer t 

■ i'-. « lonj ; or: cts longer then le 

• • brevic- uli3 . 
• ted, 4*- cts shorter tli? n 

lc 
. c res I ceolate; 4-10 n brord. ' 

3. Pedlee i 

iana 
■ P Is i . . _. pTIos" 

• ->;-evic.' ul is af. o ■--. J . 

In .oil. „ ..pr.il- 

lr glni . .rt. iy. 

In rici. soil. 

q -c t.d e acf. r ^..i» plloa; , -*rort. 

In woods ' oil. ••'.■- as . 






y-of- 



. Le: vc 
B. Peri i scp.f te. 

• lo\ I or punicled. 

■ : co1 -- iixillTry. 

c indric, c-tool . 

lj fie od; p 

• ...... • - - ■ 



In uioist soil. 



. v -June. 



ucoua s cl 3pin ; f :: 
I e. 

on both Bidet i teeelleT fXo 

us. 



is. 

"le. 



cp_t_opus -..plexlfollus ( . . . »pj -i e vc 

oods. 

■eptopus roscus 
In .^uis • 9, y- July , 



. Le- ves pubescent; fi. , : . 

• - ■• 7 









. ■ 

tit.) ..11. 0I0..0: I 

s • na , ix- ■ ; . 

-"■' • ; ' . o~.o .on'c 



Hojq ... ..: , Ly-of-1 --. 

On mountain s: ; y-Juno. 







. . 




Lie. 
7. HFide; 


i'rilliuc 


_ 


- obj 


In 210i3t 


8. pril 


Trillium vi 




ob in. 



o 1 






, , b-..::cns 



Llid- ce o. 



' ( 

Perit.nti ous crov/n c ts 

of fil : s# 

■' c to . Tpoxfs^ 

is 

jt-.l is ( te.) , unth. 

laer"" in ..oist soil. Jane -Sept. 

is 



jfis hirsute (L.J e. Tel: - ss. 

. soil. i -Oct. 



(Iris ' y) 

• l* Id©, i , c ec is. 

. Lc icsc than X/2 ia< 






. "/love: : . 



Si ay inc:iiiL.: . 



I. fulva. 



irir fulvc 






"In si 



. 






ine, 



. 



Iris 
illlsi 

s; 



,pril- 



* '■■>■* '■' ■ of ste .. . blfoj 

. Lt vcs cqucl to or '■•__•_ Pinole 

oisyri i f oils. in, 

Ll-li«.y . 

oidea Bicknel. , tout llu»~ejred 

c dov; • ._0 sun iy si one. 



16 






(Ore id ly) 

Leore is 



_ Jili (...) . is. 

•-■ - . V pril 



ci . |C' 

of bi no: 

bundles c core 

■ 

of pith; 

ves n ; se a co : . , s. 



: 



. 



4. C« 



t, or 

ittlC 

s, (i. ., 

, ) 

ous, t 



.d. 

IS, 

ous, 

- 



20 



21 



27 



, ( i . ©• i 

Liy £•» 



28 



.CG 






27 



e . a 






«> • 






o cel"> 



■ 

1. 



i . 









_ct. 
12. 

,s pe; is, bo; ne o 

hyptntL'. .: . 1 ." 

( - 



of 



. 28 
29 

30 
31 



o c or less u. 
is not bo 

,_. . ynoeci- U, (i.e., of c 

1 only. . . .21 

<.. and pistil of :.:-scve si 

united carpel' 
6* :lted, . of 

distinct oy ccv Is not cuv. 

7." . 27 

7. . 11. .30 

7. 

30 
4. Stamens on ; e to 

corol . 

si or the 10:; 



of , in 



osite 



cell- , 

. 31 
5. or fev:cr then t 

of ths corolla ; o for tc 

7. Ov e; 

'pels so« 

i£ ■ . 32 

7. Ovary usual!. -ccllc . 

1.. .33 

• ir-rc 

4 or 2, or; 
7. ri.it 1-4- : 

:to 1-: utlets. 

17. 7. . 35 
les . 
7. l>'rui 

« 36 
(.olc.onif.les). 
Oorol : , 

., t lei st the sti i n te, lo v.«* 



. 



19. 



38 



st the st ot in 
, aoeelua of one or of several distinct 
c rpeltf c Le. 

els SCVO Sla 

- . otauic . <^ . . c,Q 

8 ] i ous. 6, . 21 

. ppels soli" . , 28 




io Is; if o 

a 



j . P 



• 28 

£8 



unocclous O- dioecious or wi1 

en. 
1. i JTcrior. 

tics with v id lev. g. 20. . gg 

s. 
Is Clir 

'.s, (i.e., aule wlt3 

circu^Gciscilc iseottfl . Portul; c&ceae. 

b not e pyxis* 

e i:. cavi 

il3. 21.L0ASALESC. 40 

out tendrils. 



7. Fruit :uiic. 
5« Ovules sol. c cell. 

. 
. or les3 unit* . 

4. free fr 

■ ■ 

> cove 
or« ovule . 

. 
5. Ov) -,. i it] single ovu 

24. 



- 

39 
39 

42 

40 
42 



20 






1. 



■ 



• 






my) 



eo. 

d or 
. DelT 






--■*• .'.-.<- 









. 



." 






. 







.••; • | 




n 




• 
« 










une. 








• 









CO. 










• p 



« 



■ 



tea peit 



• 



. 



— * 



. 



. 



-, 






I 



. 




( oh ly) 

. Pistil 1-^- • c- rpels opposite sepals. 

t 1» Por't 

lateral; ovule uzid se< s „~ ' 

0. Pistil ot enclosed b; ' ptaele. 

D. whorl of 5 b 

le not pulpy; flowers 



BB 






-o pulpy; flowera e*T 



■ . 









C. Pistil iclosed : . Te. 

B. Style te 1; ovule and seed pcndulour. 

ovules, -ceded | n f? " 

7. Opulvstcr. 






us 
:ton. Aiaeric 



i. Ir.di 
In v; ste places. , pril- v . 

rl; 

Vilaorin. Gr«y»i 
Dry ccTH ~pril 



..ubus 
. - vea -7-foli- te; o ir# t« • 1# | , y . 

IS. 

ubus 



- * 
111 . soil. y-June. 

us trivl:-.?ls aieta. 
In s ndy soil. y-j B , , 



23 



. T .c fl 

-1. 



_. s rm« 

•nt; i 



• stipu s it 1 - scattered 



■ 



__. 



i:. _r ;.':icluc. Prairie ogo. 

"in opci' c-July. 



cii 



i .indl . 



oo. -oe. 



le-Jul 

yi: LI. La ,:. . 

. o: roc: 7 soil. .... 

• ■ -"- 2a_ 

Potentillfr cimi.densis . .Co u.ef oil 

In dry soil. 



22H 



oliiia ( .i . ) 



2 -riiuio. 

( pplc: Poi .11 j ) 

Ci' US 

. - .it. 

• tN -' - oa. . punc : 

lag J on te. C. vlrldls ." 
B Vt. <?. 111. 

t:.e3U,s punc . -fruited or ite 

Lowl : nds . 

■ viridis 
. .lluviul soli long st:- '11. 

lii ~1. Purslc^ 

" Ic-:. soil3. ~ - pril. 






, 






V 



... 

- 

I 



. 



- - 



SOxX* ~ 



•iilly) 









. 






• s 



v.. 



. 


















• 








• 


















- 




■ 

7. 






• 










• 


■ 9 






• 



. Sue©. ijoi-ous, tc: -tts 

■ 



. ' 






BSPttala villoa^ ( alt*) iiutt. airy " lid Indico. 
In dry sou. ^ay-June. 

Beptiiila brticte,! LI. Largo-brae ted lid ind:' 



Prairies - nd sunny slo 



..inc. 



ft^f*** loucantba ?*& G. crro hito ild Indi o. 
icn soil; wmled nountui:: alopea. ay«Ju 






s^lgi p lupmipft L* Blrck or Hop Medic* nop Clover. 
Fields and wneto pi ceo. c -ov. 

3* ■ olllotua 

• Floworo white, # vs.iba, 

. lowers yellon. offic inalis * 

ell lotu s >oav* , l-olovcr. 

aste pl-ces; xxfedsidco* ty-Gept* 

olllotua offlclnulls . Yellow ^woet-clovor* 

Gate pieces* epi . 

4. gjribf ollua * 

oa ana calyx haii P. . ref leaw. 

• St*a ead calyx ;labroua or nearly so. ?. stoW f'eru»» 

TrlfoXlua ra fle—w L. Buffalo 
v wood*. Tpril-Juno* 



L^gffl- •tolonife:n» ;<ufcl. Running Buffalo Clovor. 
Dry woods* April-Juno. 

&• ; ■ .;; co a 

graece Virginians U Cat-gut. aoat«e ue* lid 3**et-peu, 
7 **ndy soil. Jtae-July. 

<-♦ iorpha 

. :all alj^ub. o-S0-f©et | ... . . fructicooa* 

. low bucliy shrub. 1-^.f ec , T. caneacen iT 



26 



orpha frueticosa 



, False or Bastard Indigo, 
open woods. May- July. 



^iOroha coaesccns Pursh. ^lioestrings. Lead-plnnt, 
Prairies, June-, .ugust . 



7. Psoralen 

A, Leaves digltately v3-o-foliate. 
A, Le ;.vo3 pinna tely 3-foliate* 



P. digitate . 
F. peaunculata . 



Peon lea dlgitata Uutt. Digitate Psoralea. 
Prairies md hills. June-July. 

Psoralea pedunculate ("ill*) Vail, "nmii's Snakeroot. 
Dry soils* March- July • 

8. Pe talosteraua 

. Flowers white; leaflets 3-9. P. coupactum . 

B. Leaflets oblong; spilr.es cylindric. P. aultlflorum . 

B» Leaflets linear; heads globose. r 
A. Flowers purple; le: f lets o-c. purpureua. 

Petalostei^ura conpactu a (Gpreng.) LAvesey. Dense-flowered 
Prairie-clover. Cry soil. July-,Vugust. 

:.uloste..iua -.ultif loruui flntt. : ound-headed Prr.irie- 
"~ clover. Prairies. Su xner. 

Petalosteiauu purpureua (Vent.) Rydb. Purple Prairie-clover, 
?r;;iri o s . June-July • 

9. Geoprutanon 
Geoprtpn on :..e3iicanu,. (. .DC.) ydb. Larger Ground Plua. 



jwlrles. 



•y 



10. Vlcia 



. Dense spike-like racemes. 
A. Loose r ceues. 

Vicla Cracca L. Tufted or Cow Vetch. 
~~^5ry soil. ley- July. 



V. Cracca . 
V~. hirsuta. 



Vicla Iilrsuta (L.) i.och. Hairy Vetch. ild Tare, 
Fields, vmste pieces. :.lay-Augu3t. 



.. -..•-, '..:: (ft o; vori-lcn; 



. Gepulfl 2. 

5* Plovers reGUlur, st.-._«na 8. 

B. Flowers Irregular, stanseno 
• Ceptils cad petals 4-C. 



!• P; 

:.. Fuaariaeeee. 

3. Crueifcroe. 

1* i (Poppy Paadly) 





Llstlb. ^hlte Prickly Poppy. 
sides* Bsy*A«gust. 

2* MM*] | (raaewort Feadly) 

crystfclllpqa (mrslm. ) .untse. Vosict 
■HMi pril-June. 

B (Bastard Fsmily) 



A* Plovers white; pods flat toned. 
B» Pods 4-cnGled; flowers white. 
P. Pods beaked; flowers yellow. 

yellowj pods bread und flat* 

1. I*?ldluo 

. etels none; pods wineloss. 
• Petals present | pods winced. 



1« Lepldlua . 
2. ^i-ielr: a. 

4. ^ellnlp . 



t rader'ale . 
vT cinlctau 



* fftogolo • oudside Popper-gresa. 
as to pi ccs. -j-a or. 



"epidi 



Dry aoll. 




L. lid Pepper-eras o. 
t. 



L. 



Chel:l:l ; ; opera (DC.) Brlttoii* Orange 
open spaces. Bay-July* 



■MMlM al Ml 



■ i 

, <I».) izoeli. Blaek iJnet-rd. 
; in ste pieces. Juae-oct. 



4. Gelinia 



e uiiT' 




Butt, selinif.-. 

:. Msrch- pril« 



mxxAim 

1. H {allow Faaily) 

Cslllrfaee 

Ccllirhoe In valuers ta {?♦& G.) . .Gr&y. Purple Poppy- 
allow. Dry st^jdy soil. :&y- ugust. 



C ■WtittJL AIM 



1. Portulacaeeae. 



A. Sepals t» 

A. Sepals 4-S, distinct or united, 

B. Sepsis distinct j ovary sessile* 2. lsinuceac. 

B« Sepsis united; ovrry stipltutc. 3. Caryophyllaeese* 






Is PCKWLAC/.CJ . (Purslane Feally) 
Clstonla 

e L. Spring Beauty* 



st woods* 
2. AISIHACRJ:. (Chlekweed Fanily) 
Corastlun 



Coreetluc wit 

vasse pLacca, 



. 



OUCC-O: f 

pril-July* 



3. 



(Pink Foully) 



. viewers crimson. 
. "lowers purple or 



1* Clleno . 

2, ! InffTus* 



!• Mlene 



oll( 




_es U Plre i-ink. Catchfly, 
woods. ept. 



'betus . ijweot lilies* 
fpen w e e ds » — .. 



-_v I"- . 



A* Herbs with black -dotted leaves. 
. Herbs with leaves not punct; te. 



1. llypericaceae. 

2. Vlolaceae. 



1. HYP ..IC (t. John's ort Family) 

Hypericum 

A« Flowers !«•*• broad; pi it herbaceous, H. scyr< 
A. I lower a o n -l£ r ' broad; pi nts woody. IT. cistifc 

Hftpericuu scyron :.. Gre . John's V.ort. 
Stream b nks. June-'.ugust. 

Hypericum cj stlf ollqa Lam. ^ound-podded St John's ."ort, 
"ocky banks. June- Sept. 

£. VIGLA08AB (Violet Fanily) 

Viola 

A* Stealeas leaves free, root stock. V. pedata . 

B. Flowers ovoid on prostr-te odunclcs. V. palnata. 

. Plants villous. * 

C. Pints glabrous. V. papllionaceae . 

B* Flowers on erect peduncles. 7. sagittate 
i.m Stems leafy; flowers axillary. 

B» Upper leaves entire. v. kafflnesquli . 

B. Upper leaves crenate. V. ricolor /"""""* 

Viola ped; tc 1. Dird's-foot or Crowfoot Violet. 
~T5ry fields; open woods. .pril-June. 



Viola palnata 



Early Blue Violet. 



"ooded hflls. . pril- 

Viol: papllionaceae Pursh. Lleodow or Coai:on Blue Violet. 
' i. ■;. c MK pril- If* 



Viola s glttt.t: it. ^rrow-leaved Violet. 
""olst Danks and wet meadows. /pril-May. 



-ff 
elds 



i Greene. Field Pansy. 

woods. pril- lay. 



Viola tricolor Var. Lines liloba 
fields. .pril-June. 



■m Velvets. 



■nan. u.i. 



D. Ctooene 2-3»timoS as many »• petals, 1. xalidt ce 
B. Stetsons as many as petals. 2* Ilnacece. 

A # Flowers irregular. 

Is QXALEDaCEAE (Wood-oorrel Faoily) 



As Flowers r o se "pu rple. 
A* Plover* yellov/. 



tF. s trie 



Qsella vioUce e . Violet ood-so rel. Shsep-sorrel. 
In woods and fields. asy-June. 

jJBJtl ffff fft* U Upright Yellow "ood-sorrel. 
HE fields and along roadside*, sum or. 

2. TlfAOIMB (Flue rurally) 



Catbartolinu m sa les tm (i.iddell. } Small. Yellow vica. 
-.; SOU. Cuss*** 



C • £ - 



kCB&E (Milkwort Family) 
olraala 

. ... . j ■ : if 



. Ovary superior; fruit a aapwule. 
B« Herbaceous saprophytes; no croen leaves. 

1. . <onotropa**ee« 
3. shrubs with normal, often evergreen leaves. 

2. Lrieaeeae. 

. Ovsry inferior; fruit a berry. . Vt-eclnlswwaw* 



1« '.-' o?: CI. (Indian-Pipe Family) 

.'■'...'. 



oniric 



^^msg 



Tv 

» J.. 



Mm 

2. E" 



Lan Pipe. 
iopt# 

(Heath Fasnily) 

Mltl 



' ;..- 



Hwatcin ..sales, 
:;. .pril- sjr. 



3* V/.CCXHXAGSAE (Huckleberry Foully) 

A» Ovary 10-celledj fruit a berry-like drupe, 

1. isaacla . 

; fruit a ben 2. ! Iud, 



^ 



ffSMHK 1 



(:..•} 'i.& 0* Huckleberry • 




v . ..;. . , 

1. : AM (Uuck thorn Family) 

Coanothua 

ovs.tua Deaf. Smaller aed-root. 
eon end pralrleo* ;jay-June. 

PBBSTIALKS 

1. FUZfflltX : (Primrose Family) 

A* Lobea of corolla convolute, axillary. 1* Stlif— n» 
. Lobes of corolla reflexod; udboled. 2. podecc "■-■c 

ltmoooUtnt (£alt.) ...Gray. Lance- leaved 
oooM wK i-'oist soil* June* July. 

2. Dodecathoon 



^ i/»„^.l -. u 



la U 
«d 



r. 
tain tope. April-! ^y. 



■B 



z 



• "Igots united; juice ft ov ries 
B. .os united; stucjens distinct; pollen of simple 

Grains. 1 # Apoeynaee: 

B. Styles distinct; s tenons oonadelphous; pollen 

n Ins a wtjsy aos*. c. . sclepladaeeao. 

-i©aBS dl: ; juiec not milky. 3. tflfscJ 



!• /POCY- 



) 



A, Leaves clternatej erect herbs. 1. asoala. 

A. Leaves opposite; erect or diffused herbs. C. /pocynua . 



1. . ;:isonia 



^"gaofstsoli : 



[L«) Uritton. 
Aprll-Jurx, 



Anosmia. 



n ow wmm i sibir leant J 

'■my noil rvT n « 



a iy« 



2. ■ :-i..n*ci 



mm 

Cliispinc-lesved Dogbane. 
I ( illkweed Family) 



1. scleplas . 

2. flBitos. 



As Corona with un Incurved horn within. 
• Corona without horns in tiis hooc 

1. Ascleplas 

A* In; ves alternate or opposite. 

B. Corolla and eoronc ©ransej leaves alternate. 

• tuberose. 
B. Corolla white; leaves opposite* ~. varieccia. 

„ © vce opposite; corolla purple or red. " 

B. Lerves ov^te; Corolla segments red. . • rubra , 

B. Leaves oblong; corolla purple. L*~R^£]£ ^acens. 

scleplas ' ' frff f m L. Sutterf ly-wsed. 
fields, suraaer. 




v- rleftata L. . hite ilk-weed. 
"sleets tind open woods. Juno* July. 

scleplas rubra L. . ed ilk-weed* 
In cjoiat soil; woods. June- July, 



In dry rielde; rfetdsidcs* June-, ugust*' 



JSfll 



In 




2» ;>ccr; 

(SUtt«) DOC. 
Ugd£ 



«.•■.•-.: .''... ... 



SOU. 

[tftfMli i dly 



• oody vine; f levers yellow* 1* uelsealua, 
■ shrub; corolla yellow witiln, sc rlet outs'icV* 

1. Gelseaiua 

,) It. bellow J< 



■ * Plgelis 
G plgelle ciarylaaaiea , L* Indian or Carolina Pink* 

maiMWEitu 

A* Ovary 2-5-cslled* 

3* Fruit various, neither c berry nor prickly capsule* 
C. Twining vines* 1. Oonvolvulaceee* 

C. Herbs not twining* 2* Poleiioniseeee. 
B« Fruit a berry or prickly capsule* 3* Solaneeeae* 
Ovary 1-celled. •:, liyd-ovu;.: iccl- g. 



1. OOffSjtjfuuCEi.E < orning-aiory waadly) 



>• Stigaa e» pittte i leaves linear* 
aas 2; leaves nmvmt linear* 



1* ipo- oee* 

volvulus . 



*•• lf°--Qoa 
Ipoaooo trlchoj»y^.ll* fiemll-flowered Pink aorningglory. 

onvolralus 

. Bpscts lai*ce», enclosing a ealyx* 
B. Stews glabrous* . *10 foot long; le ves hastate* 

C* seplu.. , 
B* Steus pubeecent* 1-6 feet lone; leaves' sagittate* 

C.repens* 



• Bract* small, remote „/x. 



— * £22SE£i£* 




L »epi'ga U Bodge or Greet Bindweed, 
ana renee roars* June-Cept. 



trailing B 



Convolvulus 



2. PQLESSOBlACBaS (Phlox Pasily) 
A* Corolla funnoiformj lo&vos 

-"U Pfalojc 



• corolla 8-lv©rfo:Ta; leaves opposite* entire. 1. Phloju 

omste, not entire. 



2. Gills. 



km Steas erect 5 no prostrtto shoots; leaves linear* 
A. Stems ereetj prostrate shootaj leaves Oblong* 

Phlox pilose L* .joeny or Prcirle Phlox. 
Dry soil, .priWune* 

Pnqoz dlvajitEie " • lid Bluo Phlox. 
fnmiM Mu. pril-June* 

2. Gllla 

^ilia lboHdlfolla Benth. ound-heoded Gilia* 
^i dry soil. Hay-June. 

3. E (Potato Family } 

otBKSBSSBE 

i*. Flints- very prick J^. 

s lyx not enclosing- fn»*t. 



a . 



S..I . ■ • '- 



lly* enclosing fruit. 
BtS not prickly annu&ls. 



▼ r -l ' -JL l -l.ll»L ' I..L.... i 

£• ?° 9 traia»w» 

~ # ^c — • 









-x> iiaspoo 



Borae-Settlc. 
- opt. 



ntf| -"•-•- nai _-. -.i' ;..io mm i 

Lraeo* apt. 



SOl 



nigrum " « ck or 
i pit ccs • July* 



aack or Deadly Sight shade. 



n»»to p. 

4. HY (D«r«g« Family) 

Phacella 

ffaacella hirsute Eutt. liair;. olia. 
Dry soil. pril-June. 

. Style apical; flowers quite : •. 1. Verbenaeeae. 
. Style arising between ovary lobes; flowers irregui. . 

2. Labia t' e. 

1. VEKBEHACLV (Vervain Family) 
Verbena 
, spikes slender; bracts al orter than flowers. 



Plants glabrous o: pubescent. 
B« .-lants soft-pubescent. 



V. iiaatata . 
**. ntricta. 



A. Spikes thick, dense; bracts longer than flov/ers. 

canadensis. 






. Blue or lalse Vervain . 
:lds. June-: ept. 



Verbena stricta Vent. Hoary or ul en- leaved Vervain, 
oil. June- Sept. 

Verb ena c- ruwJ fl ^Eis ('..) 3rltton. Large-flowered Verbena. 

2. | int Family) 

. nther ben ring 4-stnens. 

. Calyx with protuberance on upper sic .1. cutollarla . 



C. Calyx tubular, not 2-lipped. 
C. Calyx distinctly 2-lipped. 
. Calyx tubular, •aapanul 
:r bearing 2-stoaens. 
B. Flov/ers in terminal spikes. 
. lor., ra in dense bracted spikes. 

1. Scutellaria 



2. Ilepeta . 

3. Pr unel la . 

4. Lamlu 

w. : ; alvia. 
6 . onarda. 



Scutell aria, paryula z. C^all Skull-eap« 
In rocky soils • .prll-July. 







36 




2* Uepota 




■"&«» &££** c,tnw * 






. ruaella 






mell& valflsris if -he; 
■'icld toll." ,&yOct. 

■- : - It AH 




,v'.. 


11, ■fffl i, FSb.< 

w Oclvia 




8alvia lyrata La £tfre-l**ved Sago. 
"Try roclcy ooll. Sfsgr-July* 






.. 


- 


• 


Leaves pubesee&fctbcne&tfc.* bracts white or 


• purple* 

. fistuloexu 


. 


Leaves o«aese«nt beneath, br&ets gree: 

teas, L. ild Borgaoot. 

. . oU£iO-..ept# 

m fc ^||| . i |g | .... Bergs °'-- 

T"Te* end pi inc. Jtme-Au . 

SCKQHRT 


\U mollis." 




Plewers nor* or lees irreculer^ 1. ci 
'overs nearly result * £• - e* 


. 


vtae periet 1. - . 31gnoniscoce» 




U (Figeort Peaily) 

f 
bile staoens £; corolla result ■ 1. Verbs scua* 
B» Leavee entire or 3-lobec. 

C# Corolla tubular, 2-lipped. lobes of lowev lip 
fl- t. £• Pentatesa*** 
• Corolla £~clcf t| . iddle lobe of lower 

condunliectc. = . 


i 




B. Leave* pinnctely lobed or pirns. tif led. 

4* Pedlculrria . 
A* Fertile str.nens 4 or 2. &. Llnarla . 

1. Verbaacua 

Verbs acua: :_;!:■. ttarie. .. lullea. 

In fields end wcate plrces. June—Mov. 

2. Pentsto.:ion 

. -lyx- lobes I: 

ncrr tc. . gracilis, 
3. ftteae 2-4 feet I a entire. F. ju biflorus. 

■ Calyx-loboo lancool: to. p. "PenTaTCeBon; 



Pentste:-ion £rt..cllis :;utt. Clender Bet rd-ton^©. 
:oist pr-lrles. ay^Joly« 



at«1 



n tuoiflorus Hutt. runnel-f ora Deard-toncue. 
soil. T!5y-July. 



Pentste.aoa rents te^oa (L.) uri;,ton. 
oods and "thickets. ay- July. 

5. P&ulor:nla 

haob.) P»n1<Wrt>< japr^eaa Tree. 
Open woods. ^ay-July, 

4. Pedicularis 



Pedlci 



1 ■-■■ ^ > 



Mia L. . ood IBetony, 
pr II- July. 



Louoewert. 



5 . ia . 



A# Flowers yellow. 

.... Flowers ...itc or blue. 



L. llnaria . 
L. canadensis. 



r 4 r L2. ^ L *J --■"-"'St. Butter-and- s. 

lelaa; dry soil. June-uet. 

1- 1 ; c -.:idenala . Lue or lid Toad-Flax. 

Fry soil. JTay-Lept. 






ftanttna Fee.*. 
uellla 



. Flowers sessile or ly no 

B» Calyx-aosaont3 linear lancco; , scarcely exceeding 

the capsnl . « atrepons * 

B» Calyx-sogiients fllifern-llne r» saseSllig etpsulc. 

• cllloscu 
. lowers peduncled. _7 pe^unculata « 



In dry 



L. Saooth or Short- tub* Raslllc. 

Iay-Ju3y. 



Rmllla clllOfa Pure 

dry soil. JttBt* 

■ uciUa pedurxculaU Torr, 
In dry sou* June- c 



itit 



iniii 



•• BUMVZi ON ( 



oollle. 



capet-Creeper Family) 



• Lecvea compound; atamans 4; vino 
B* uulyr-Il..ib undxile : 

Its partition rail. 
. Calyx 5- toothed; capsule coop 
to lta trail, 

• Loaves almple; stnaena 2; trecc. 



mttaMi ptrsiisl Sim 

1« , nlao s Lsj ajb 

rosaed ct rl{5i .08 

S, Blgnonla. 

Upa. 



4nleostlchus 

jv/or. 



ta ( r .) Duroaau Tendrilled Tiiiiifir 
woods. April-June. 

2. aigionla 

lower* 

.-itept. 

3. CataOjs 

SAPINDALES 



f m i.ASCULACEAE 



< 



owera yellow or creenlsh-yollow. 
-ree; le flcta puboscc 
ohrttbf leaflets gltbrate. 






woods* 



? 1 1 -" 



ij • 



-eye. Pet:'. ckeye. 



Aaaculus i:\;uta Buckl. Shrubby or "estern Buckeye 
.oods. March-- pr 11 • 

eaculus Pavla . Red or Little Buckeye. 
" "long roedoid s. rll- T. 

1. OHAOBACEAE ( Evening- Primrose Family) 

A* Stamens equal in leng' 

tlca» deeply 4-cleft. 1. Oenothera. 

3. stigma entire or slightly 4-toothed. 2. erloilx . 
A* Stamens unequal in leng: 3* Vsrt.iiannla« 



1. Oenothera 

• ov?ers larvae, petals 6 1 -8* broad. 

. lowers small, 6 r -2» brocd. 



0. biennis . 
7. l-'cinii 



Oenothci mis L. Co.: on vening- ose. 

Dry soil. Jsay-Oct. 

■ othei'a lrcinlata Hill, cut-leaved evening-Primrose, 
ry son. lay- June. 

2. reriollx 

— rlolix ser-rulata C'utt. ) alp. _ooth-le- vod Priurose, 
TnTcfry soi2.*" 



er 



. 



i:.r-rtoannla 3pcclosa (Sutt.) Small. 
Prairlost TTSI ier . 

3; flowers uabell~te. 1. / J"tfM^ cc ' 

. hrubs, trees; flowers not umbellate. 2. Cornuceae . 

1. • iac< 



1. 

km Petals yellow; leaves compound. 
. Petals w ite; leaves sl 

1. ;izia 



1. Zlzia . 

2 « I >?- o l epls* 



: Izla flrtiA (Coult.ft Rose.) -itton. Golden Meadow Parsnip 
oadsides. v . 

2. :per;;Olepls 

::- pen::olepis dlv; ricatus ("alt.) Britton. Rough-fruited 

,__ ^ rj - sell. . pri] 

Z. . (Dogwood Family) 

!• Cornus. 



A. Flowers eyiaose, not involucre tc. 
. lowers capitate, involucre te. 

1. cornus 



2. j ynoxylo n. 



G orans aspcr:'. • ichx. ou } -leaved Dogrood. 
oist soil. \ pril- June . 



2SL 



2. (•yno^'lon 

Id jMP ('..) Raf. o.ering logwood; 

pril- Juno . 

LO 5 

1. CI ... L (Gourd Family) 

1; cucurbits. 



Ita foeti. 



■•'etid or ;i3sou: 1 Gourd; 



j opt ■ 



Leaves stipulate, blockening in drying. 1. Rublaceae. 
. oives exstipulate, not bleckening. 2. Caprifolinceae. 

1. ido ^ariily) 



a. Leaves verticulate; ovule in c o rity. 

B. norolia rotate, 1« Gallup . 

D. Corolli funnelfor. 2. "f hera'rdia . 

. Ia vos opposite; ovul I 3. . ous toni c*. 

1. Galium 



Galium £i£l£MMMI 
in dry woods. 



- orss-Cleavers. 



r-July. 
2. 



sis 
in v.-! st-c places 



L. Blue Field :.:adder. 
June-JuJ v . 

IlQttstonia 



. Plants l»-7 f hi.^i; peduncles 1-flOT/ered. 

Peduncles filiform, l«-3« lor: , . _. coerulea. 

B. Pedimcles £*'-13" Ion;, stout. 

C. Oalyx-lobcs narrow. __. p -tens , 

lyx-lobes ?;rOid. . :~-.ini:r.a . 

■ 4* -13* high; flowers c„ ■■ " snu l folia . 

]loustc oerulee . luets. Innocence. 

Open grassy pieces* 1-July. 

is 11. Small Bluets, 



• soil. i:arc 



prll. 



ustonia .•.dni.-.ia Beck, si .nets. 

In dry soil. arch-, pr i 1 • 

Iloustonia tenuifolla Butt* .lender-leaved noustonia. 
In clr; soil. Say- July. 

2. PKIPO IAC (honeysuckle Family) 



j . Corolla tubular. 



B. Fruit t ber y. 1. 

. Fruit s 2-celc "tile. 2. 

. orolla rotate; flowers in cyroes. 3. 


LCSlicera. 

Diervilla. 

>1 U5US . 


1. ..onlce 




Lonicora smmpervlrens . . unrpefc or Coral 
In lov/iaTids . ^pril-Se, 


Honeysiclsc. 



2. villa 

Biervili rvilla (L.) MMM« Sush-IIoneyouckle. 
3 w rocky ..ooCUiads. ay- June. 

3. Ifl Jucug 

i i 



C 



Hi 



lovers not in involucre tc he. . . 
3# I lowers regular, 
"lowers irrogul.- . 

lowers in involucr oad3. 
B» 11 f 1 .-lute. 

. Daly outer row li 

1. C 



1. Caapanulacea*, 

2. Lobellaccae. 

3, Cichoriaceae. 

4, Composit* e. 



1. Cpecularia 

. Leaves sessile; capsule valves near top. . . biflor a. 
. Leaves clasping; capsule v- Ives ner,r middle. 

G. perfollata. 

SP* ~ lora ( , ., . , ITslTl Venus' Looking- 
glassT "TJry soil. j pril-July. 

gpecul-ria porfoliata ( L . ) . . Vomis » Looklng-gla s • . 
9*7 30il; ya,-ds. : r ay-C ept . 

2. LOBE: "...: (Lobelia Family) 
jelia 
, • 2ti pul tj single terminal spike. L. spicata. 

us; spikes of several flowers. L. inflata . 

Lo belia 3picata La . 'le : piked Lobelia, 
:: dry sandy soil. June- ug. 

Lobelia lnf 1- ta L» Indian or '..ild Tobacco. 
In dry soil. June-Kov. 

3. CI< icory Fe_.dly) 

. "lov/ers blue or white; pappus of scales. 1. Cichor ium. 
. lo -ers yellow; pappus of bristles. 2. Citilias. 



1. hor-iua 

Chic: , ; , ilors. 'ild Succor; 

..Oadaidcs. ""Tudy-Oct. 

itillaa 

■i caroli . j»ed False 

Dandelion. In dry field3. April* Jul 

4. C0LIP0G1 ..stlo Family) 

•i unapv od at tipj heads 

a -• ibe 1. Irmleae. 

cts of involucre rell Lubricated. 
C. Ctyle-b ranches of the perfect flowers flattened, 
with tersii;:. .: 3. 

Tribe 2. stereae. 
C. Ltyle-b es trv. ribe o. elenieae. 
S. Bracts little imbricated, or not at -11. 
C. 3i of involuc ious. 

be 4. cliantheae. 

. - cts sc-rious. '^ribe 6, Ideae. 

.ors lons-tciled at be 30, os 

at the tip; heads I ibe C. Oynurc : e. 

-ibe 1. Inuleae. 

A. Plants dioecious or poly ,r .o-cioccious. 

. pappus bristles thickened iibavo. 1. ntennaria. 

. Pappus brie ties not re ft. 2. s7 

A. Plants not dioecious; flowers fertile. 3. i TJjm * 

1. .'-ntennaria 

£* J&i^ s inifoli a, .icapuds. Plantain-leaf 

•orlasting. Dry c_L. o. 

2. .'nrphaiis 

-£:. - :■ r^i.rit^ce- I .} 3cnth.fi: Hook. Perrl, last. 

3 soTT; <june- 



• 



is-bristles d 

.11, erect; inflorescence corymbose, G. obtuslf ollu . . 

B. Low diffuse; inflorc cplt&te. ST. ullGinosua . 

.o-brlstles united at bi M . jT. pupureua . 

OD ftChftlium obtusifollian L. - : 1 I ':"•. . 

" Dry open places. '"Sept. 

Onaphaliu^. nosvea L. Low Marsh Cudweed. :.!ous«-err. 
In dWip soil. 3uly«Sept . 

pupurcui:: L. Pu ..:h Cudweed. 
3oll. ' ay-' ept. 

Tribe 2. stores© 

A, Ray flowers yellow. 1. Clirysopsls . 

. rj flowers blue, white, pink, never yellow. 
B. Bracts of involucre in 2 to many series. 

£. liter . 
s of involucre l-2-series. 3. .rifcron . 

1. i \ jojjsis 

Chryso-Js:. 1. Grcas-leaved 

Golden . "star. In dry soil. /ug.-Sept. 



. Leaves slender petioled. 

id finely p s • nt. _. "ru: ondll . 

. Involucral bracts spreading. _. jultii aru s. 

C. Involueral bracts _. paniculot us. 

. Stevig gli brous. _. cordiroiTus . 

. ■ .•oaves , oricled cl sp" 3es. 

B. I ts viscid. A. novr.evnrlicc . 

B. s not viscid. A. nbvae-bclgli . 

. ster Dru-uio ndll Mndi. Druau-ond's ister. 
Tn dry soil. Sept . -Oc t . 

, ster lilt if 1 orua . it. ..oe-flov/ered ..ster. 
In dry open pi ■..■ces. jv. 

■• stci p:.nicul:.tu3 Lai . Par.icled . ster. 
lr." aoist soil • . ig • - Oc t . 



'^looStwSttfc 






ilue ood a tor. 



opt,-:>ec. 



Lnnd . ster, 



.'.XV 






ster novse-belcll - ew York .ster. 



In 8 









It ec 



Mutt. estcm Daisy F 



ay- July, 



.enioae 



. Leivoa plana tif led. not punctate, 
. -; vet entire, punct tc. 






us 



' 



>n, 



. . Mte iij^enop^ppus. 



SOBECr. 






tonuif oliu... ::utt. 



" ■ •'. 

,-,. Brccts tabric-.tsd In 2-3-seriesj disk flowers perfeet , 
sterile. JU 

B. i.eccpt&clc conic or convex; pappus 

or none* 2» Rudbockle * 

. Psppus of two ltrge ac . ieiisntEuo. 

s In two distinct series, united at o*.se| oisjc 
flowers perfect, fertile. 4* coreopsie . 



iC09« 



1. 

bb Lr Aaerican Fever-few* 






. .:.:. obose. 

_. - • 
Plants pubescent. 
C* Chaff ci.ll to. 
G* Chaff canescent. 
. Disk elongated. 

udbeckla hirt. 

: TIries ua& pi- ins. pt» 




I „. :'. 



... ■_ Showy cooo-f lover. 



pri i:-ica. -*>- ct. 



nurtbfQlfin arsndlflorc Oxaelln. Largo-flowered Cone-f Icr or. 
01 DC June- us* 

Hi "--':, _L, "■'- .- , *»tt. Grout Cone-f lowor. 
:. •,. -.:.. June- 



sk purple or purple-fcroen. 

Leaves hispid, . :.. rorj ens. 

Loaves firm in texture. IT. ac b errsTslta . 

k yellow; leaves glabrous. !!. oTru^oaiia . 

nf _^ i ::. , V 1 .c-^:.sl: I iniflo'vc. . 

n ... 5 .; ... " .- e% 

Llar.thua scaberrl _ ?. 1 . I Iff 
fmrics, u^;.-^ept. 



M | gis anr"^ 



ocd unflorcor. 



:. 



. c v-.c ai^pie o plan telj Ube4« 

Leaves near stem base; heads long pedunelod, 

~. isao—fl 
. teas loafyi heads short peduncledT cT"? 
• eaves pelaately 5-cleft. t» jv ".».. .: 

;oroopal3 3£Ma£ge>|a L. Lanee-lo&ved Tickaeed. 
S<Ery soil. 



CojMBgts c . -flowered Tickseed. 

In noist soil. 

Core:;' " ^_ ff *ckseed» 

■ * ir-5.es. June- July. 

. nth©i:ddeae 

. receptacle chaffy* 

;es flntten- 3 email* 1, Achillea . 

B. rete; heads large* 2. Antlieuia '. 

. . C c ~ c not chaffy. 3. cniysr-ntTieaiuuk 

1. chi Ilea 

-.chill ea -aillefolium T >. Xi Wf« ilfoil. 

'-•osnopC 1'itP.n. 7une-!"ov. 

2. . .18 

An thesis cotult; , -ayweed. Dog-fennel. 
la org. soil* . • er. 

3. Chry s ■ ntheanra 



Chrysr.r.the-iu.: ,euc- -■ntkeiTtun .. 'Jx-eye Daisy. 
xn oi*y soiit i?. ■■ . • 

dbe 6. Cyni-reae 

chenes inserted, not oblique. 1. Ciraiun. 
v- ones oblique! 2* ^entaurea . 

1 . 
Cirslua lautlcum :ichx. listle* 

In" .oist coi 1 . July- Oct. 

2. "entauree 



Gent:: urea MeTftf ffPa Butt. :.;erican Star Ihistle. 
:v*y ioTT." q . 



totl n-a, fo-iilies, 

and miaber of species ir y# 






. 









i-oaceae 



13 






81. 



- r---~ 1. 


c — - 4. 
x - 

" rilll 

7 
.nrlliduceae — 



— 


7. 


—"• — 


1. 




1. 


. *0 




- C-^O ■■■* 


1. 




10. 


ze&c — -——-- 


^-. 


m* 


1. 


G 


t. 




. J/J. 


RHQEODALBS. 7 




MM 


i. 


uaritcco - — -~ 


1. 


g _- 


w • 


1 




alv.-ceue 


1. 






- aceee 


1. 


lsi^r.ce-o — 


1. 


- - 


Bi 



w 



3 






•icoceoe — 

iol 

4 
Gxalideeoe 

^e^e 



4 

■ --- 

' ricrcrr.e — 

Veccinisceae - 

CELASI 1 

Hlaaiaaace* c ------ 



t 

e 

"Ce^iadaceee --- 

jganit< 

10 
onvolvulnccrc — 

iolc o ilacea* 

olcnac; ~~ 

r d r oph j 1 1 £ c e a e — »* 

Verbenaceao 

Labiate 

14 
crophy 

c c 

BignonlaMt* 

5 
e3CUl*"CC«M| — 

4 

OnarTpaceae 

I 

-^SStl zzzzzzz: 



2. 
6, 



2. 
1. 
1. 

1. 
1. 

2. 



1. 



. 



2. 

a 



4, 

2. 
0. 
1. 



3. 
7. 

3. 
5. 



4. 



curb! 
Cap: Ifoliacec 



e — 



-._ . 



■ •_ 



'laceae 

osltae — ■ 



A tuxonomlc study wao a the flora of Pulcc!:i 
County, which is loct.ted approximately la the eer.ter of 
the State of ricans •« " c io .ion of the county, 

eluding those factors per *g to the . , 

tho geology, sad tho abundance of flora, -re typically 
Chirac teris'vlc of the state as t 

some 224 spec:: seed be: ring plants were collected 
and identified by the use of v • rlous aaaaals and text- 
books, and their ldent verified by comparing them 
with typical specimens in i rbarluia at Kansas Ctate 



lOllOMa 



wo. listed p: ly and s 



dlcho t em om key was prepared to aid in their identifica- 
tion. She species of pluats included members of 24 orders 
sad 68 families. Of these, the orders oapanulsloe with 
species, the Resales wl species and the Poalos 
li 27 species rrnked the highest in numerical importance, 
She families Composltue, ? o und rtoseeeae contained 
the lur-jost BBBSSSV of spec I S, 



It is with pleasure 2 this opportunity to 

ecknovrled&e ay iadebtednes* and gratitude to r. IA 

i:ayruaker # professor of Plan' .olosy, under ttIioso 

supervision this study was pursued; to agr isot! 

^ . aha aeaisted in uakinc the collection of 
specimens included in « V* 

Aeknowledr^ents vi *l30 . do of ay obligation* to 
Iss Ads of cs lllor, 

,feseor of Plant j -olO{^r; irofessor . . elcherc, 
li*ad of Deportoent of 3»t*r s . Jsbsm ■ otcert, 

*■ of the Division l . , for their 

courtesy* suggestions and kin, est du in? the study* 



52 



Branner, Gc C. 

.tlirc of the Physical .'68 of Arkansas. 
Arkansas Jcol 1 Curve . 24. p. ll-lus. 1927. 

Itton, Nathaniel . crd., and fll !?■!_ ddison. 

D Illustrated of tlie northern Jnited Cti:tes, 
Canada . .v.- 

Charles Ccribncr's Cons, Hew York. 1927. 

Bruner, L. .iurray. 

Forestry ■ cs in b. Little l.oc . 

ision Circular lio. 281. 30. p, illu3. 1950. 

Doeter .'.., .. ., .nton, ?.H» 

>il Curve;" of Pul&ski County, ..rkuns s. . . opt. 
ri. oils. p. 7. . illus. 192(3. 



0:1 



tni i 



')1 VI 



•nald, en 
onual of 
American Hook Company , lievr York. 1908. 



Tidon. 

us. 



Petersen, . . 

Flora of Nebraa?- . id edition. State Printing 
Company, Lincoln. 191 .